英语论文参考:marketing literature review

2018-05-06 05:28 编辑:admin 来源:代写论文 浏览:

广告和品牌形象对消费者购买的影响

 

Introduction:介绍

 

在这篇文献综述中,我将讨论关于广告和品牌形象的理论,以及它们如何影响消费者购买。首先,品牌形象以及它如何影响消费者的购买将被讨论。其次,有关于广告的理论,广告是如何影响消费者购买的。

 In this literature review,I will discussed the theories about advertising and brand image and how both of them affect consumer purchasing. First of all, brand image and how does it effect consumers purchasing will be talked about. Secondary, there are theories about advertising and how does advertising effect consumers purchasing. 

 

Brand image:品牌形象:

 

品牌的定义是“一个名称,术语,符号,符号或设计或它们的组合,旨在识别一个卖家或一组卖家的商品和服务,以区别于竞争对手的商品和服务”(科特勒,1991年,第442页,引用于Kahle&Kim,2006,第4页)。一个品牌可以帮助一种产品在市场上脱颖而出。品牌是一组符号,表明公司拥有一定的产品(Kahle&Kim,2006,p.7)。当有许多公司在市场上推广类似的产品或服务时,有必要开发一个强大的品牌名称,这样客户就可以很容易的注意到。公司需要建立一个强大的品牌形象,在消费者心中产生强烈的联想(Kardes,Cronley&Cline,2013,p.352)。品牌形象的概念最早出现在20世纪50年代,营销人员很难理解实际的含义(Woodside,Megehee&Ogle,2009,p.40)。品牌形象可以建立品牌名称,产品协会之间的关系,买家与之相关联以及当他们看到它或谈论它时如何感受(Kahle&Kim,2006,第5页)。

 

 Thedefinitionof brand is “a name, term, sign, symbol, or design or combination of them which is intended to identify goods and service of one seller or group of sellers to differentiate them from those of competitors” (Kotler, 1991, p. 442, cited in Kahle & Kim, 2006, p.4). A brand can help a kind of products stand out from others on the market. Brands are a set of symbols that shows a company owns a certain set of products (Kahle & Kim, 2006, p.7). When there are many companies promoting similar products or services on the market,it is necessary for them to develop a strong brand name, so customers can notice it easily. Companies need to develop a strong brand image that will bring about strong associations in the mind of consumers (Kardes, Cronley & Cline, 2013, p.352). The concept of brand image first seen in the 1950s, it is difficult for marketers to understand what is actually means (Woodside, Megehee & Ogle, 2009, p.40). Brand image can build relation between brand name, the product associations, what the buyer associates it with and how they feel when they see itor talk about it etc. (Kahle & Kim, 2006, p.5). 

 

How does brand image effect consumers purchasing?品牌形象如何影响消费者购买行为?

 

According to Sumarjan et al. (2013, p.282), the image of a brand can provide a continuable competitive advantage for a company, which can have an effect on the way that consumerspay attention tothe price of goods. For example, if products have a strong brand image, then consumers will pay more for it. Brand image has a major effect on which productattracts consumers choose to buy. It also has an effect on how much consumers would like to tell other people about it and recommend it to other people (Sumarjan et al. (2013, p.283).  Kahle & Kim (2006, p.184) stated that when consumers strongly recommend a brand, they will have a unique feelfromthis brand, and this creates a positive attitude towards it. Therefore, when a consumer thinks that a brand performs well, they build up a strong brand image and this means that they are more likely to tell others about it.All of these can result of increasing sales for the company.

 

Advertising:广告

 

Advertising is part of the promotional mix; the promotional mix consists of advertising, public relations, sales promotion, and personal selling (Lamb, Hair & McDaniel, 2012, p.163). Advertising is the most common type of promotion from in all of the types of promotion. It is classed as a type of non-personal communication and it takes place between the company and the consumers. Advertising can be very expensive.According to Lamb, Hair & McDaniel (2012, p.165), television advertising is the most expensive form of advertising out of all of the type of advertising. Companies can also advertise on radio programmes, newspapers and magazines. It is believed that there are many benefits associated with advertising, for example, it can reach a lot of audiences, this is especially true for television advertising, because 95% of people in the UK have TV at home, and they watch about 4 hour TV everyday (Facts & figure, 2014, p.1). 

 

However, companies can gain a lot of revenue and attract new customers through advertise products, even though television advertising is expensive to use to promote products (Lamb, Hair & McDaniel, 2012, p.166). Consumers may see an advertisement many times, because it is always played more than once on radio or television, or the advertisement may be printed in a magazine several times, or in different magazines. Because the consumers will see the advert lots of times, so it will stay in their minds, as a result of this, it has more chance of persuading people to buy the product than other products  (Trehan & Trehan, 2008, p.4).

 

How does advertising effect consumers purchasing?广告如何影响消费者购买行为?

 

According to Abideen & Saleem (2005, p.56), companies cannot become a well-known brand until they spend a lot of money in promoting their goods. The main aim of advertising is to reach potential customers, increase their impressive, improve their attitudes towards the brand, and have a positive effect on their buying behaviour (Abideen & Saleem, 2005, p.57). Therefore, companies are willing to spend a lot of money in advertising. The major objective of advertising is to create an effect on the buying behaviour of consumers. This is supported by Malik et al. (2013, p.119) who stated that the role of advertising is to persuade people to buy a productin their lives. Companies will use celebrities in their advertisementand encourage people to buy their products, therefore this usually has a positive effect to their sale, for example Romeo Beckham was appeared in the Burberry advertising campaign and their sale was up 13% because of the celebrity endorsement (Waterlow, 2013, p.1). 

 

Malik et al. (2013, p.119) suggested that most people rely on adverts more than other types of information about products, such as family and friends. Furthermore, Malik et al. (2013, p.119) state that advertising has an effect on people from all income levels, but advertising is most effective for advertising expensive items. According to Priyanka (2012, cited in Malik et al., 2013, p.119), advertisers want to use Internet advertisement rather than television advertisement nowadays, because they allow consumers to interact with them. When companies advertise online, they can get feedback from consumers, which allow them to improve their advertisement and also products. 

 

References: 文献

 

Abideen, Z.U. & Saleem, S. (2005). Effective advertising and its influence on consumer buying behaviour. European Journal of Business and Management, 3(3), 56.

 Forbes (2012). Who spends more on ads- apple or Microsoft? 

 Kahle, L.R. & Kim, C.H. (2006). Creating Images and the Psychology of Marketing Communication. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaulm.

 Kardes, F., Cronley, M. Y & Cline, T. (2013). Consumer Behavior. Mason: Southwestern Cengage Learning.

 Lamb, C.W., Hair, J.F. & McDaniel, C. (2012). Principle of Marketing (8th Edition). Cengage Learning. 

 Malik, M.E., Ghafoor, M.M., Iqbal, H.K., Ali, Q., Noman, M. & Ahmad, B. (2013). Impact of Brand Image and Advertisement on Consumer Buying Behavior. World Applied Sciences Journal, 23(1), 117-122

 Shirman, E. (2013). Apple's ad budget hits $1 billion. 

 Sumarjan, N., Zahari, M.S.M., Radzi, S.M., Mohi, Z., Hannafiah, M.H.M., Bakhtiar, M.F.S. & Zainal, A. (2013). Hospitality and Tourism: Synergizing Creativity and Innovation in Research. London: Taylor & Francis Group.

 Trehan, M. & Trehan, R. (2008). Advertising and Sales Management. New Delhi: V.K. India Enterprises.

 Woodside, A.G., Megehee, C.M. & Ogle, A. (2009). Perspectives on Cross-Cultural, Ethnographic, Brand Image, Storytelling, Unconscious Needs and Hospitality Guest Research. Bigley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

 Facts & figure, (2014).

 Waterlow, L. (2013). Romeo Beckham helps Burberry notch up 13% hike in sales after ‘exceptional’ response to spring/summer collection.

 

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